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Encyclopedia of Astrology (Nicholas deVore)

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Eagle. (1) Aquilla. A small constellation located approx. Capricorn 29°; sometimes called the Vulture. (2) Frequently associated with the sign Scorpio, as seen in the wings of the Sphinx (qv.). The sharp eyes and aquiline nose of the pure Scorpio person thoroughly stress the connotation. (3) By the Greeks and Persians, the Eagle was held sacred to the Sun and Jupiter.

Earth Shine. The dimly lit surface of the Crescent Moon caused by sunlight reflected from the Earth, to the Moon, back to the Earth. It is one of several factors which enter into the astrological significance of the Lunation.

Earth Signs. Those of the Earth Triplicity: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn. The ancients symbolized these types by the Earth element, because of their predominant "Earthiness" or practicality. v. Signs.

East. (1) One of the four cardinal points. (2) The general direction in which the Sun rises, particularly at the equinoxes. (3) The rising degree at the cusp of first house, placed at the midpoint on the left side of the map. (4) Loosely applied to the entire six houses which occupy the left half of the map - the Eastern houses: 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3.

Easter. From Eastre, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of light or Spring, in whose honor a festival was celebrated, usually in April - since at that time the Spring Equinox occurred in April. A Festival marking the commencement of Spring has been celebrated among many peoples under a variety of names. By the Christians it was celebrated in commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus. It coincides in general with the Jewish Passover, or Pasch, which the Jews celebrate on that 14th day of a lunar month that falls upon or next follows after the vernal equinox. After some schism over the point, the council of Nicea in 325 A.D., ordained that Easter should take place on the Sunday that immediately follows the full moon that happens upon, or the first full moon after, the day of the vernal equinox; except that if this falls on Sunday, or if Easter and the Passover coincide, then Easter is deferred one week. The reconciling of three such unrelated factors as the week, the lunar month and the solar year is sometimes a complicated matter. The full moon as calculated by the ecclesiastical rule does not always coincide with the astronomical full moon. These rules are based upon the golden number, epact, and Dominical letter (q.v.).

Eccentric. An eccentric orbit is one formed about a centre, which itself is revolving about another centre. Ptolemy first employed the term as descriptive of the orbits of the planets about the Sun, viewed from the Earth as the central point of observation. His supposition was that the orbit was a circle, but that the Sun was not in the center of the orbit. In fact he considered it to be an imaginary circle representing an imaginary orbit, since it had not been discovered that the planets revolved round the Sun. The term is now applied to an elliptical orbit. The eccentricity of an elliptical orbit is defined astronomically as its degree of departure from a circle. It is expressed by the ratio of the major to the minor axis. The orbit of Venus has the least, and that of Mercury the greatest eccentricity of the planets in the solar system.

Eclipse. This phenomenon is one that involves Sun, Moon and Earth. There are two distinct types: (1) that in which the Moon stands between the Sun and Earth, cutting off from our vision not only the light of the Sun, but the Sun itself. This is a Solar Eclipse, and occurs only at the time of a new Moon, when the Sun and Moon form a conjunction near one of the Nodes at which the orbits of the Earth and Moon intersect; and (2) that in which the Earth cuts off from the Moon the light of the Sun, depriving it of its illumination but still leaving it in our line of vision as a dark and shadowy object. This is a Lunar Eclipse, and occurs only at the time of a Full Moon, when the Sun and Moon are in opposition, close to the Moon's nodes.

An Eclipse of the Sun comes from the West; of the Moon, from the East. An Eclipse can occur between the Sun, the Earth and a planet, but that is of infrequent occurrence; also between the Moon, the Earth and a planet, the Moon coming between the Earth and the planet. The Eclipse of a planet by the Moon is called an occultation (q.v.).

The position of a Solar Eclipse coincides with that of the Sun on that day. The position of a Lunar Eclipse coincides with the opposition point to the Sun's position on that day. Both Solar and Lunar Eclipses can occur at either Node. (q.v.). The magnitude of an eclipse depends upon (1) the relative distances of the luminaries from the Earth; and (2) their distance from the Nodes. The duration of an eclipse depends on the relative rapidity of motion of the bodies.

The ancient rule was that the effects of a Solar eclipse last as long in years as the eclipse lasts in hours; of a Lunar eclipse, a month for every hour. From a Figure cast for the moment of commencement of the eclipse, events were deduced as affecting countries ruled by the ascending Sign, based upon the strength of the planets in the Signs and Houses

Some modern authorities consider that the countries which lie within the eclipse shadow are probably those in which the events signified by the eclipse will be felt. In the Nativity, the eclipse is most powerful when it falls upon the birth position of a planet, luminary, or ascending degree.

Contrary to ancient superstitions, eclipses are not uniformly evil. One man's loss is often another's gain, and an eclipse in good aspect to a benefic under good directions can result favorably. Those on the places of the Sun, Moon, Ascendant, or M.C. and on the malefics are, however, unfavorable influences. Frequently their effects are not felt until some time thereafter, when another planet, principally Mars, transits over the degree on which the eclipse occurred. Thus an eclipse-degree becomes a sensitive point for several years after the eclipse has passed; in fact, until its consummation is attained with a subsequent transit of Saturn over the eclipse degree. Frequent reference to the following tables in connection with current or past events, will contribute vastly to an understanding of the major trends that are set into motion by the third dimension of the Moon's orbit - that which is vertical to the plane, marked midway by the passing of the Nodes.

The temperature on the Sunlit Full Moon exceeds the boiling point of water, at which time it emits infra-red rays that are several times more intense than the rays it reflects from the Sun. During the first five minutes of a Lunar Eclipse the surface temperature falls far below the freezing point, and the emission of the infra-red rays ceases.

Saros Cycle of Eclipses. The Plane of the Moon's Orbit has an inclination of 5-15 degrees to that of the Earth's orbit. Two opposite points of intersection of these orbits are the North or ascending Node, and the South or descending Node. These Nodes regree from month to month, and in approximately 19 years make a complete circle of the zodiac. In the following tables showing the nineteen Saros series, since each year one or more eclipses occur at each Node, separated roughly by half a year, the entire number of from 2 to 6 are listed as belonging to one Saros Series. Taking as the first of the series the group that follows the passing of the Node over 0° Aries, there result 19 series - after which each group repeats itself slightly altered.

It should be noted that a Solar Eclipse, caused by the passage of the apex of the Moon's shadow in a narrow path across the Earth some 70 miles in width, is visible only to a person located in the path. A Lunar Eclipse, partial or total, caused by the passage of the Moon into the Earth's shadow, is, however, visible all over the hemisphere that is turned toward the Moon.

If the Moon is at such distance from the Earth that the apex of its shadow falls short of the Earth's surface, the Moon's body will not entirely obliterate the Sun and a narrow rim of light will surround the dark body of the Moon. This is termed an Annular Eclipse. Sometimes an eclipse begins as an Annular Eclipse and then becomes total as the apex of the shadow approaches the equatorial* regions. This is called an Annular-Total Eclipse. Both are termed Umbral Eclipses. Where there is an appreciable separation in latitude there results a Partial Eclipse.

*: Because of its convexity, the circumference of the Earth's surface is some 4,000 miles father from the Moon than its central position.

Because of the eight-hour fraction of a day, the umbral track of the eclipse shifts some 120° West at each return; hence on every fourth Saros return (54y 1m) it recurs in the same longitude, but somewhat farther North or South.

A complete Lunar cycle consists of 48 or 49 eclipses over a period of about 865 years; a solar cycle of 68 to 75 returns, over a period of about 1260 years. A Saros cycle consists usually of 14 partial, 17 annular and 10 total solar eclipses, and 29 Lunar eclipses - or a total of 70 eclipses.

Eclipse Limits.

When a conjunction of Sun and Moon occurs within 18° 31' from either node, the major solar eclipse limit, a solar eclipse may occur; within 15° 21', the minor solar eclipse unit, a solar eclipse will occur; within 11° 15', the major central solar ecliptic limit, a total or annular eclipse may occur; within 9° 55', the minor central solar ecliptic limit, a total or annular eclipse will occur. When an opposition of Sun and Moon occurs near either node the major lunar ecliptic limit is 12° 15' and the minor 9° 30'; the major total lunar ecliptic limit is 3° 45' and the minor 6° 0'.

The series of Metonic returns bear no relationship to the Saros series. Meton's cycle of 19-year intervals consists of an eclipse in approximately the same degree of the zodiac on the same date 19 years later. Approximately 23% of Solar eclipses have no Metonic returns; 38% have 1 return; 19%, 2 returns; 13%, 3 returns; and 7%, 4 returns. A Metonic return may be of a different phase and nature, and belong to a different Saros series. A Solar Eclipse begins as partial at one or the other poles, and increases in strength as it moves toward the Equator - finally fading away into outer space beyond the opposite pole. Thus an eclipse may be said to have a "birth" and a "death," with a life span of from 865 to 1252 years, or from 48 to 70 appearances.

Looking back to the "birth," or beginning partial (BP) of any series, you can, in delineating its recurring effects, take into consideration the Sign in which it first appeared, and the Ruler of the Sign.

The Solar Eclipse of June 8, 1937 in Gemini 18°, Saros series 11, which lasted for 7m 13s, was of longer duration than any in the last 1,200 years; although those of 1955 and 1973 were to be almost as long. That on July 20, 1963 at 0° 28°, Saros series 1, was to be one of the shortest, lasting 65s.

The Saros Cycle of 223 Lunar months was discovered by the Chaldeans. This is 18y 11d 8h, where 4 leap years are contained; otherwise, if 5 intervene, it is one day shorter; or if 3, one day longer. The series consists of 70 eclipses: 41 Solar, and 29 Lunar.

The Penumbral Eclipses. The Saros cycle is generally stated by astronomers to consist of 29 Solar eclipses in 1260y and 41 Lunar eclipses in 865y, making a total of 70 eclipses, on an average, for one complete series. However, each series of Lunar eclipses is both preceded and followed by about 10 periods of Penumbral eclipses, of some 180y duration. Since the Solar eclipse limit is much wider than that of the Lunar, a Lunar eclipse in the penumbra has an importance, astrologically, about equal to that of the Partial Solar eclipse, in that it embodies both the gravitational effect of a parallel, and the interference with normal radiation, that characterize all eclipses. An eclipse in the penumbra is generally termed an Appulse, in that the rim of the Moon just touches the Earth's shadow, while the body of the Moon receives the light of the Sun from only one side of the Earth, which during a portion of the time shuts off the light of part of the Sun's disc. By way of illustration, note Saros cycle 4, Lunar eclipse at the North Node: the last Lunar partial eclipse of the series (EP), October 7, 1930, 14° Aries, was to be followed by Penumbral eclipses in 1948, 1966 and 1984. In Saros series 11 is a continuing series at the South Node that follows an eclipse cycle which ended prior to 1800: also in this series the Total Solar eclipse of June 20, 1955 is so close to the node that there is a penumbral eclipse both before and after it. Therefore when making note of the position of a Solar eclipse in any map it is advisable also to note as temporarily sensitized degrees, the Moon's opposition points to the Sun 14 days earlier and later, and check on their strength by reference to the tables of eclipses and the chronological list of Appulses for the years 1871 to 1959. Even if it is on neither list, it represents what is sometimes called "approximate eclipse conditions," and can become an important factor if it falls exactly upon the degree which posits a planet.

The ancients did not have the benefit of the modern Ephemerides. They actually studied the motion of the bodies in the heavens, and thereby discovered the various cycles that would enable them to calculate the intervals between successive recurrences of similar phenomena; therewith to make calculations of the psychological fluctuations that produce events. Among these were the Mercury cycle of 92 years, the Venus cycle of 486 years, the heliacal rising of Sirius in September every 162 years, the Metonic 19-year luni-solar cycle of eclipses, the mutation periods based on the conjunctions of the great chronocrators Jupiter and Saturn, and most important of all the solilunar Saros cycle and its multiples and derivatives. As this cycle brought the recurrence of the same eclipse 18 years and 10 days later, at a point about 10 degrees farther along the ecliptic, it was found that each third return, an interval of 54 years and 1 month, brought a similar return of a visible eclipse at about the same time of day; also that in 12 times that period, or 649 years, the cycle was completed with a Solar eclipse prior to the seventh month after the Autumnal equinox, then the beginning of the ecclesiastical year; and that the lunar eclipse two weeks later began a new 649-year cycle. It was by such means that most of the prophecies and the dates of their fulfillment as recorded in the Bible were arrived at.

The 15-year Solar cycle of the Chaldeans was a slightly different cycle: largely a chronological point of reference, arrived at by dividing the 360 degrees of the circle into 24 hourly segments of 15 degrees. On the basis of 1 degree to a year, it became a method of reckoning occurrences, terrestrial as well as celestial, in fifteen-year intervals. This cycle was adopted by the Romans as the period of reappraisals for taxation, and became known as the Indiction cycle. The Solar cycle of 28 years was the period in which the days of the week reoccurred on the same days of the month.

J. J. Scaliger devised the Julian period from the product of these three cycles: the 28-year Solar cycle, the 19-year Soli-Lunar cycle, and the 15-year Indiction cycle (28 x 19 x 15 = 7980), and made it begin January 1, 4713 B.C., when the three cycles coincided.

About 1896, J. B. Dimbleby began the reconciling of Biblical dates, and arrived at the conclusion that the historical records of the Anti-diluvian Epoch were based upon a 7-year Solar cycle - one fourth of the Solar cycle as it was employed in a later epoch; and that after the deluge, chronology was recorded by the 15-year Solar cycle of the Chaldeans.

His chronology is thus given in successive years, beginning with the Creation year as 0 A.M. - Anno Mundi, "the year of the world" - thus avoiding much of the confusion incident to B.C. and A.D. dates. It begins with the eclipse that fell on the Autumnal Equinox, September 20, 3996 B.C., a year in which its two Solar eclipses fell in April and October, in which the Solar and Lunar years began simultaneously, and which coincides with the command recorded in Leviticus 23:24.

Few astrologers of today take the trouble to study the major cycles through means of which the ancient Biblical porphets were able to foresee the workings of Destiny - that man could stay if he would, but seldom does. It is certain that a study of the Eclipse cycles, and the application of modern adaptations to the study of the various cycles that were successfully used by the early astrologer-astronomers, will be productive of gratifying results.

Eclipse of Thales. May 28, 585 B.C., predicted by Thales of Miletus, and which stopped a battle in the war between the Medes and the Lydians. Other historic eclipses were that which occurred at noon in the first year of the Peloponnesian War, when several stars became visible, presumed to have occurred August 3, 432 B.C.; and that which occurred when Agathocles, King of Syracuse, was sailing with his fleet toward Africa, on Aug. 15, 310 B.C. Saying "The die is cast" Caesar crossed the Rubicon on the day of a Solar Eclipse, March 7, 51 B.C..

Ecliptic; Via Solis, the Sun's path. The Sun's apparent orbit or path around the Earth; or the orbit of the Earth as viewed from the Sun. So named because it is along this path, at the points where it intersects the Equator, that Eclipses occur. Its inclination (23°27') to the plane of the Equator is now decreasing at the rate of 50" per century. A comparison of the calculations of this obliquity by Hipparchus, Ptolemy and Placidus, with those of modern astronomers, shows that the decrease has been continuous for over two thousand years. Discoveries of explorers in the Arctic and Antarctic regions indicate the one-time presence of tropical flora and fauna, suggesting that the poles of the earth were once in the plane of its orbit, and the present equatorial region was a great ice-belt. However, some astronomers figure that the inclination will decrease to a minimum of 22°30' in about the year 11,500. A similar condition is observed in Mars and Uranus. Sometimes termed the Celestial Ecliptic to distinguish it from the path of the Moon's orbit around the Earth - termed the Terrestrial Ecliptic.

Ego. The conscious feeling that "I am Me." In psychology the ego, as a system of mental states, is approximately synonymous with the mind. Occult philosophy claims there are two egos: one identified with mortal personality; the other divine and indestructible.

Elections. Electional Astrology is a method by which to choose a suitable time for commencing any honestly conceived and reasonable project or endeavor, such as a marriage, journey, law-suit, building operation, engaging in a new business or profession, the reconciling of opponents, drawing up a will, buying land or house, planting a garden, launching a ship, or moving into a new home.

The theory of Elections is a reverse application of Horary procedure in that the latter begins with a Time and works toward a prognosis, while the former begins with a desired prognosis and works toward the selection of a suitable time. The selection of the day, hour and minute must take into account a number of practical, scientific and theoretical considerations, in order to determine the most propitious birth-moment for the project in prospect, after which the actual initiating of action is deferred so that it may be begun on the selected moment. The Figure thus cast, termed the Electional or Inceptional Figure, thereafter becomes a horary figure for the conception of the project, from which to estimate the probable success or failure of the plan, most of the important particulars connected therewith, the high and low tides that will beset its progress, and in general forecast the eventual outcome of the project under contemplation. It is presumed to be effective for whatever length of time is required for the carrying out of the project.

To make a reliable Election the following considerations must be observed:

1. The Nativity of the person for whom the Figure is to be cast should, if the data is obtainable, be diligently studied. All authorities agree that this feature is of paramount importance.

2. The radical Ascendant, when used for this purpose, should not be moved against the Earth's motion; which is to say, it must be moved clockwise rather than in the order of the Houses. Ptolemy, in the sixth aphorism of his Centiloquy, says: "It is advantageous to make choice of days and of hours at a time well constituted by the Nativity. Should the time be adverse, the choice will in no respect avail, however favorable an issue it may chance to promise."

3. The Directions concurrently at work in the Nativity should be taken into account, to make sure that the proposed project is not beyond the native's capabilities. No useful purpose can be served by making an Election for a project that is foredoomed to failure.

4. Attention must be paid to the Sign positions and aspects of the transiting planets before considering the House positions they will occupy in the Election Scheme, since favorable House positions cannot be expected to offset unfavorable sign positions and adverse aspects. Frequently it is found impossible to cast an Election that is even remotely favorable, in that the planets refuse to arrange themselves harmoniously within the time limits at one's disposal. However, should the project be imperative and impossible to defer but otherwise valid, an Election arranged with the available forces at one's command will usually be found better than none at all. Even so, if the Nativity, or the Directions concurrently in force, promise failure, no Ellection, however astutely conceived, can possibly impart success. Therefore, one should not assume that the electional technique is a master-key to success; wealth and happiness. However, in such cases it will often be found impossible to initiate action at the elected time, one obstacle after another entailing delay, until finally the project can be initiated at a more favorable season, with eventual success.

5. The planet disposing of the project should be free from the adverse rays of the Infortunes - Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto; and, when possible, should tenant its chief Dignity.

6. No Infortune, nor any planet that is retrograde, combust or otherwise notably debilitated by Sign, degree or aspect, should hold any Angle of the Figure, unless said Infortune happens to dispose of the affair in question, is well dignified, strong by Sign, well disposed toward the other two signs of its Triplicity, largely unafflicted, and as distant as possible from the Luminaries. If it is less than 8 from the Sun, or 12 from the Moon, the project will suffer many hindrances and delays. The parallel of declination has an influence similar to that of a conjunction, and both of these along with the trine aspects constitute the most powerful adjuncts to success. The sextile is notably weaker, while the square and opposition are notably adverse.

7. By reason of its proximity to the Earth, its reflections of solar light and retransmission of planetary vibrations, and its swiftness as compared to the motions of the planets, the Moon is deemed the most important element in any Electional Figure. Therefore a time must be chosen when the Moon is free from any serious affliction and - in case the matter is desired to be accomplished quickly - swift in motion. The nearer its rate of travel is to 1517' per day, as at perigee when nearest to the Earth, the quicker will its influence be manifest. Also it should be increasing in light; i.e., from three days after the lunation to three days before the Full Moon. Care should be exercised that the Moon does not tenant a Cadent House, and all things considered it is desirable that it is not in an Angle. When the lunar motion is less than 13°11' - hence near its apogee and thus farthest from Earth - its ray is deemed in many respects similar to that of a retrograde planet. When possible, place the luminaries, or at least one of them, in trine to the radical Sun, Moon, Ascendant or its Ruler, of the person for whom the Election is cast. It should be free from affliction, and in a close favorable aspect to transiting Venus, Jupiter, Sun, or still better to the planet disposing of the project under contemplation. Under no circumstances begin a new business when the Moon is radiating adverse aspects or when it is past the Full, however propitious the other testimonies may appear to be. When past the Full, hence decreasing in light, the strength of the Moon is diminishing, and as a result the project will be greatly retarded; as also when the Moon conjoins Saturn on its own South Node, or Saturn is rising, or in the Fourth House. Since the Moon rules Cancer, that regulates the inflow and outflow of the life-tides, and is exalted in Taurus, that controls the basic materials of which the Earth is compounded, and since both luminaries govern the tides of Earth and of the waters surrounding, it should be apparent how potent are the configurations of this nearest of the Earth's gravitational and radiating forces in the destiny of all living things. If the Ascendant is in a Sign of short ascension - Capricorn to Gemini inclusive - and Mars afflicts, the elector places himself in no little jeopardy of some untoward accident, or outbreak of temper on the part of himself or another, which could seriously upset the matter in hand.

8. When beginning a project presumed to be reasonably permanent, render it durable by placing the four Fixed Signs, and preferably the 5th degree thereof, on the Angles of the Figure; or at least see that the Moon tenants one of them.

9. See that your Election does not notably stimulate any serious affliction in the Nativity; that the Moon is strong and well placed and that neither the Moon nor the Angles in the Nativity are afflicted by the more important electional positions. The natal House that disposes of the project for which the Election is cast should be well fortified, and care should be exercised to see that its Ruler is strong, well placed and unafflicted.

10. If the project is a financial one, the cusp of the radical Second House and its Ruler should be fortified by good aspects, as also the corresponding position and planet in the Election.

11. It is desirable to place the Lord of the radical Ascendant in an Angle, or at least in a Succedent House, in the Election, and oriental to the Sun, whether the planet be benefic or malefic, thereby avoiding its placement in a cadent House or an occidental position, which would be particularly undesirable if it conjoins the Moon.

12. A malefic that rules the radical Ascendant may be made use of in the Election, since it is not harmful to the person whose Ruler it is.

When the Nativity is unobtainable, the cautions relating thereto must of necessity be disregarded. In the literature of Horary Astrology and Elections are to be found many aphorisms relating to the subject, for which reference may be had to the works of Ptolemy, Guido Bonatus, Cardan, William Lilly, A. J. Pearse and Dr. Broughton, including Ramesey's "Rules for Electing Times for all Manner of Works," contained in his Astrology Restored (edition of 1653), to be consulted in a few of the libraries.

To cast thoroughly sound Electional Figures one should first master the rules of Horary Art; then develop it by recurrent practice in casting Electional Schemes for one imaginary project after another. To perform this successfully necessitates the memorization of lists of the various ventures and commodities falling within the province of each planet; such as that: the Sun disposes of business, professional and social preferment, and rules games, hobbies and certain classes of investments; the Moon disposes of those matters in which permanency is not desired, and favors dealings with women and servants, and concerning domestic affairs; Mercury disposes of travel, messages, writing, mail, and the ephemeral type of publications; and so on for the remaining planets, as listed in any good text-book on Electional Astrology.

When an elector lacks a sufficient knowledge of astro-dynamics to enable him accurately to cast the Figure whereby to select a suitable moment, the next best substitute is to consult the aspectarian in any good ephemeris, and begin operations just prior to the formation of a good lunar aspect. Another resort is to refer to a Planetary Hour Table calculated to latitude, and select the middle of a Jupiter hour.


Electric planets. v. Planets.

Elements. The four fundamental natures, symbolized as Fire, Earth, Air and Water. v. Signs.

Elevation. Astronomically, the distance of a planet above the horizon; its altitude.

Elevation of the Pole. As this increases as one advances N. or S. from the Equator, it is the equivalent of Latitude, hence is seldom now employed in this sense, to avoid confusion with the use of the term in reference to the relative House positions of the planets.

Elevation by Latitude. Of any two planets, the one that has the more latitude, either N. or S., is said to be "in elevation by latitude." If the latitudes be the same, that which has the least declination is the more elevated.

Eleveation by House Position. That one of the Ascending planets which is nearest to the cusp of the Tenth House, the Midheaven or highest point in the map, is said to be elevated above the others. Loosely applied to any planet that occupies a position above the horizon in a geocentric chart. Elevation is one of the Accidental Dignities. (v. Dignities.) A malefic in elevation above the luminaries, especially if in the Midheaven, indicates much adversity - unless mitigated by strong and favoring aspects. If the malefic is anareta, it presages a violent death; if it be elevated above a benefic, the benefic will be powerless to prevent; but if the reverse, the benefic will moderate the anaretic tendency. If either of the luminaries is elevated above the malefics, their power to harm will be greatly lessened.

Elongation. (a) The angular distance of an inferior, or interior, planet from the Sun, as viewed from the Earth. The maximum elongation which Mercury attains is 28 degrees; Venus, 46 degrees. Consequently in a birth map the only aspects Mercury can form to the Sun are a conjunction and semi-sextile; Venus, these and a semi-square. (b) The farthest distance of any planet from the Sun; aphelion.

Embolismic Month. Embolismic Lunation. An intercalary month employed in some ancient calendars, whereby to preserve a seasonal relationship between the Lunar and Solar calendars. v. Calendar.

Emerge. Emersion. To come out from a coalescence with the Sun's rays; employed chiefly in reference to eclipses and occultations. Antonym: immersion.

Emotional Natures. Referring to the quality of sensory receptivity and reaction through the sympathetic nervous system that characterizes those born with the Sun in Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces - respectively, the initiative, executive and deductive types of the Emotional group. To classify this group as Emotional, does not imply that other groups are not capable of Emotion; but where those of the Intellectual group experience emotion chiefly through mental processes, of the Inspirational group through a super-consciousness of the Ego, and of the practical group through a capacity for sentiment, the Emotional group appear to be motivated almost entirely through Emotional stimulation apparently generated in their nerve ganglia as reflexes, and which penetrate to the very fibres of their physical being.

Enneatical. The ninth in any series. Said of a climax which occurs on the ninth day of an illness - or every ninth day of its progress; also of the ninth day after birth; the ninth year of life; or every ninth year throughout life. (v. Climacterical Periods.)

Epact. A word of Greek origin, applied to a number that indicates the Moon's age on the first day of the year. As the common solar year is 365 d., and the lunar year 354 d., the difference of 11 indicates that if a new moon falls on January 1st in any year, it will be 11 days old on the first day of the next year, and 22 days old on the first of the third year. Hence the epacts of those years are numbers 11 and 22. In a leap year, however, the remainder is 10, which introduces such complexities that the chief and almost sole use of the epact is in determining the date of Easter. A number which represents the number of days of excess of the Solar year over 12 lunar months is the annual epact. The number which represents the number of days of excess of a calendar month over a lunar month is the monthly epact. The epacts differ from the Golden Numbers, from which they are derived, in that they provide for the adjustment of (1) the solar equation, a correction of the Julian Calendar, and (2) the lunar equation, a correction of the error in the lunar cycle. In its use in determining the date of Easter, apparently more concern was paid to the consideration that it must not coincide with the Passover than to astronomical exactness, for the Tables of Epacts are frequently in error by as much as two days earlier or later.

Ephemeral Map. One erected for the time of an event, to be judged by Horary Astrology.

Ephemeral Motion. The day-to-day motion of the celestial bodies of the solar system in their orbits. Said in contradistinction to directional or progressed motion.

Ephemeris. pl. Ephemerides. An almanac listing the ephemeral or rapidly changing position which each of the solar system bodies will occupy on each day of the year: their Longitude, Latitude, Declination, and similar astronomical phenomena. The astronomer's Ephemeris lists these positions in heliocentric terms; that of the astrologer, in geocentric terms. A set of Ephemerides which includes the year of the native's birth, is essential in the erection of a horoscope. Ephemerides were first devised by astrologers to facilitate the erection of a horoscope. Finally, when they became of common use to navigators and astronomers, they were given official recognition by the Government, and issued as the Nautical Almanac. The oldest almanac in the British Museum bears the date 1431. It is said that Columbus navigated by the aid of an Astrologer's Ephemeris.

Some of the notable ephemerides have been: Vincent Wing, 1658-81; John Gadbury, 1682-1702; Edmund Weaver, 1740-46; Thomas White, 1762-1850 (also reappeared in 1883); George Parker, in Celestial Atlas, 1780-90; John Partridge, in Merlinus Liberatus, 1851-59; E. W. Williams, in the Celestial Messenger, 1858; W. J. Simmonite, 1801-61; Raphael, 1820 to date.

The old astronomical day which began at noon was abolished on Jan. 1, 1925, and since then the astronomical day has begun at midnight. Gradually this is reflected in the making of Ephemerides. Therefore it is important to verify whether the ephemeris one is using for any given year since around 1930 shows the planets' places at noon or midnight. This can be determined at a glance by noting the sidereal time on Jan. 1: if it is around 18h the ephemeris is for noon; if around 6h, it is for midnight; if neither of these, it is probably calculated for some longitude other than that of Greenwich.

Epicycle. A term employed by Ptolemy, in whose astronomical system the Earth was regarded as the centre, to indicate a small orbit around a central deferent (q.v.). He assumed that the orbits of all the other planets formed epicycles around the Earth's orbit. It was involved in an attempted solution of the phenomenon of retrograde motion. Assuming that the Sun pursues an orbit, the Earth's orbit is an epicycle, which while pursuing its own orbit is carried forward in the larger orbit of the Sun. The Moon's orbit is an epicycle upon the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. The Sun, which is never retrograde, was the only solar system body which, according to Ptolemy, did not have an epicycle.

Epoch. A point of time with reference to which other dates are calculated. Prenatal Epoch applies to a system of rectification in which the Moon's place ten lunar months previous to the birth moment becames the ascending or descending degree at the moment of birth. v. Rectification.

Equal Power, Signs of. v. Beholding Signs.

Equation of Time. (1) Astron. The difference between mean solar time and apparent solar time. The moment the Sun is exactly on the Midheaven of any place is apparent noon at that place; hence an apparent solar day is the interval between two consecutive passages of the Sun across the Midheaven, or the elapsed time from one apparent noon to the next. However, since the Sun - or more correctly speaking, the Earth - does not move at a uniform speed throughout its orbit, the length of the apparent day varies at different times of the year. To make possible the use of time-keeping mechanisms, there was adopted a standard fixed day of 24 hours, known as a mean day - the length of which is the average of all the apparent days of the year. The result is that mean noon is sometimes earlier and sometimes later than apparent noon. The difference between mean and apparent noon on any particular day, the Equation of Time, may amount to as much as sixteen minutes. (2) Astrol. It is generally considered that in a Figure erected for noon the Sun will be at the cusp of the Tenth House. This is approximately true, although at certain times of the year it will be two or three degrees removed, on one side or the other from the Midheaven. One sometimes hears the suggestion that the Figure should be erected by the Sun and not by the clock, which would involve the application of the Equation of Time as a correction of clock time. This is done when calculating the time of the rising of the Sun or other bodies. Its application to the erecting of the Figure, however, would be utterly unsound, for the time in which the birth is stated and the ephemerides which give the planets' places are both based on mean time. If the Figure were to be erected for apparent time, the birth moment would have to be corrected to apparent time, and the result would be the same. (3) It is unfortunate that this term is incorrectly applied by some authorities to the difference between mean and sidereal time, more properly termed the correction employed in reducing to sidereal time the elapsed mean time of a given birth moment before or after noon or midnight. (4) The term has frequently been incorrectly applied to the time equivalent of an Arc of Direction, in years, months and days - of which few points in Astrology have been more debated. The coordination of the 360° of the Equational circle and the 365¼-day year yields a mean value of 3m 56.33s per day, and a mean increment of either Right Ascension or Longitude of 59'8". Some authorities advocate an equation of 1° per year or 5' per month. Others advocate a method wherein the Arc of Direction is added to the R.A. of the Sun at birth - the number of days after birth at which the Sun attains this directional position, reduced to years at the rate of one day for a year or 2 hrs. for a month. Others divide the Arc of Direction by the Sun's mean motion per year (59'8"), the result converted into time at the rate of one degree for a year. (v. Directions.)

Equator. The circle that lies midway between the poles of the earth, dividing it into two hemispheres - North and South. Also the projection of the Earth's equator upon the celestial sphere - sometimes called the equinoctial circle.

The celestial equator has also been defined as "the continuation of the plane of the terrestrial equator without limit into celestial spaces."

Equinox. A point in the Earth's annual orbit around the Sun, at which the polar inclination is at right angles to a line drawn between the Earth and the Sun; in consequence of which the length of the day and the night are equal all over the earth. This occurs at two points, called respectively the Vernal Equinox, which the Earth passes on March 21 when it enters Aries, and the Autumnal Equinox, on September 22nd when it enters Libra. Astronomers have not yet charted the Sun's orbit or determined its plane, or the inclination of the orbit of the Earth to that of the Sun, but it is possible that when these have been determined, it will be found that the Equinoctial points are the Earth's Nodes, where the plane of the Earth's orbit intersects that of the Sun. Thus the Zodiac, measured from the Spring Equinox, will be shown to represent a fixed relationship of the Earth and Sun in an orbit around some remote galactic center. (v. Galaxy.) This will make the Equinoctial points in reference to the Sun's orbit, analogous to the Moon's Nodes in reference to the Earth's orbit.

The equinoxes are commonly defined as the moment wherein the Sun reaches the point at which the plane of the ecliptic intersects the plane of the equator.

Equinoctial Signs. Aries and Libra. v. Signs

Era. Applied to numerous historical epochs, presumably starting on some specific date of constant reference, among them the following:

The Grecian Mundane Era............... Sept. 1, 5598 B.C.

The Civil Era of Constantinople....... Sept. 1, 5508 B.C.

The Alexandrian Era................... Aug. 29, 5502 B.C.

Ecclesiastical Era of Antioch......... Sept. 1, 5492 B.C.

The Julian Period..................... Jan.  1, 4713 B.C.

The Mundane Era....................... October  4008 B.C.

Jewish Mundane Era.................... October  3761 B.C.

Era of Abraham........................ Oct.  1, 2015 B.C.

Era of the Olympiads.................. July  1,  776 B.C.

Roman Era............................. Apr. 24,  753 B.C.

Era of Nabonassar..................... Feb. 26,  747 B.C.

Metonic Cycle......................... July 15,  432 B.C.

Syro-Macedonian, or Grecian, Era...... Sept. 1,  312 B.C.

Tyrian Era............................ Oct. 19,  125 B.C.

Sidonian Era.......................... October   110 B.C.

Caesarean Era of Antioch.............. Sept. 1,   48 B.C.

The Julian Year....................... Jan.  1,   45 B.C.

The Spanish Era....................... Jan.  1,   38 B.C.

Actian Era............................ Jan.  1,   30 B.C.

Augustan Era.......................... Feb. 14,   27 B.C.

The so-called Vulgar Christian Era.... Jan.  1,    1 A.D.

The Destruction of Jerusalem.......... Sept. 1,   69 A.D.

Era of the Maccabees.................. Nov. 24,  166 A.D.

Era of Diocletian..................... Sept.17,  284 A.D.

Era of Ascension...................... Nov. 12,  295 A.D.

Era of the Armenians.................. July  7,  552 A.D.

Mohammedan Era of the Hegira.......... July 16,  622 A.D.

Persian Era of Yezdegird.............. June 16,  632 A.D.

The Gregorian Year.................... Oct. 15, 1582 A.D.

Standard Time zones................... Nov. 18, 1883 A.D.

The Julian Day........................ Jan.  1, 1925 A.D.

Eros. (1) Greek God of Love, Son of Aphrodite. Equivalent of the Latin God Cupid. A divinity of fertility. In Orphism Eros was born of the cosmic egg produced by Night. (2) The 433d asteroid, discovered by DeWitt in 1898. Eros at times comes closer to the Earth than any heavenly body except the Moon. v. Hermes (3).

Erratics. Erratic Stars. A term applied by the ancients to the planets, in distinction to the Fixed Stars.

Esoteric. Secret knowledge not accessible to the uninitiated. When such information is published it ceases to be esoteric and becomes exoteric, which means that the facts have become the property of the rest of humanity. As employed by Leo, exoteric interpretations are those wherein a predicted event is considered to be inescapable, while esoteric interpretations are based upon the assumption that the developed individual is able to exercise self-determination and volition, and to render himself immune to the harmful effects of astrological influences by transmuting them into a source of power.

Essential Dignities. v. Dignities.

Eudemon. The good demon. A term anciently applied to the Eleventh House, indicating that it is productive of good, as the Twelfth House is of evil.

Exaltation. v. Dignity.

Executive Type. Referring to a quality of unyielding determination liberally possessed by those born when the Sun was in a Fixed Sign: Taurus, Leo, Scorpio or Aquarius. v. Sign.

Exoteric. The exposed, the visible. Antithesis of Esoteric. (q.v.)

Externalize. Said of the event which transpires when an astrological influence is incited to action by contact with a circumstance of environment. The thought is based upon the theory that astrological influences have to do with the mental and emotional conditioning that determines the nature of the individual's reaction to circumstances, but that they do not of themselves produce events.

Extra-sensory Perceptions. Commonly abbreviated, E.S.P. A phrase coined and defined by Dr. J. B. Rhine of Duke University and applicable to mental phenomena such as telepathy, clairaudience, clairvoyance, precognition and similar supernormal sense capacities. A capacity for receiving extra-sensory impressions is generally associated with a favorable Neptune accent.

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